[Translation] the growing popularity of microchipping: are we ready to let technology under the skin?

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It is impossible to exclude emotional or psychological response to new technologies, especially those related to body modification

With the spread of the implants experts worried about the strengthening of surveillance and exploitation of workers. Supporters of the technology call these fears irrational.

August 1, 2017, the company employees Three Square Market from Wisconsin, specializing in vending machines, lined up in the dining room of the company on the implantation of the microchip. One by one they gave their local tattoo artist, protalkivaya implant size with the rice in their flesh between thumb and forefinger. To the procedure agreed 41 employees, and they all received gift t-shirts with the inscription “I chipped it”.
Wholesale of implantation, organized by the management of the company, coincided with the long-term development plan, which includes cashless payments for vending machines to snack in the workplace could be bought, simply sweep a brush. A highly publicized “party chipping” proved to be an excellent marketing tactic, and this story wrote all of the media from Moscow to Sydney.

However, not all brought to this event the attention was positive. After that, the authors of some comments on the company’s page in Facebook encouraged employees to quit. The company’s page in Google is flooded with negative reviews. Christian groups convinced that the implants fulfill the prophecy about the End of the world as “mark of beast”, has accused the company of being a Antichrist.

Jovan Osterlund, Swedish tattoo artist and piercing specialist, whose company, Biohax provided Three Square Market with microchips, with interest watched the scene.

For Osterlund implants are not radical or innovative. For many years he lived with this, and got implants to hundreds of other young Swedes, keen on technology. For this community chip refers to the seamless fusion of biology and technology. They used implants to gain access to the coworking, payment for use of the gym, and even for travel on the train. Opening Biohax, Osterlund was hoping to bring this concept to the world market.

Three Square Market was a test, the first company in the United States, publicly offered to employees implants. But highly emotional response, linking these devices not only malicious surveillance, but also with ideas about technopolises, raises the question that Osterlund still trying to find the answer: is the world ready to let the technology under the skin?

* * *

Implants of a microchip, in fact, is a cylindrical bar-code that when you scan transmits a unique signal that penetrates through the skin layer. Basically, these chips are used to organize products, warehouses, identification of cattle and lost Pets, although in human subjects was also conducted.

In 1998, Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics reading University implanted a chip in his arm for demonstration of the ability of the procedure and to explore the ideas of transhumanism, according to which the merger of technology with the body is the next step in the evolution of mankind.

First Osterlund heard of microchipping a few years after the beginning of the project to Warwick when his friend copied the chip my dog and implanted it under the skin. They both belonged to the group of fans of body modification in Sweden and often experimented with new technologies, such as clamidia and piercing of the nasal septum. “Chip the dog was used for drawing, so my friend could go to the vet and pretend to be there own lab, or something like that, told me Osterlund. But the idea that implants can do more stuck in my head.”

In 2013, Osterlund came across a German company that sold the industrial-grade microchips in the Internet. Unlike chips implanted animals, and is able to pass only the ID number, these devices operate with a data transmission Protocol NFC, which can be programmed to perform simple tasks.

Osterlund ordered a batch of chips and wrote a simple program, thus linking it to Samsung 5 with a microchip that when he took the phone in hand, he was automatically dial his wife. At the first attempt of implantation of Osterlund damaged the fuse of the chip during sterilization. The second attempt succeeded better when he touched the phone, he automatically started a call to his wife.

“It’s like my body turned to the Internet, he said. It was my own moment of johnny Mnemonic“.

Delighted, Osterlund contacted his friend, Hannes Sjoblom, community-based Swedish transhumanist. Sjoblad was impressed by the experiment Osterlund, and invited him to hold a demonstration in “Epicenter” – coworking in engineering school in Stockholm, where Sjoblad was “in charge of disintegration”.


Osterlund keeps microcephaly implant

Other innovators and startup founders from the “Epicenter” interested in implant Osterlund, and soon they Sjoblom began to organize the evening “beer chips”. Osterlund implanted microchips in the process of making alcoholic beverages, and shared ideas about possible applications of the abilities of the cyborgs.

“”Epicenter” quickly adapted to the biochip, and we were soon opened the front door and printed documents with the help of implants, told me Sjoblad. – All this happened on a voluntary basis and it was very good.”

* * *

Today Osterlund and Sjoblad own their own businesses associated with the microchips. Biohax Osterlund aimed at simplifying the identification of and access to the digital world, and offers replacement endless passwords, keys, tickets and cards littering our lives. “Chip and everything is on this single, tiny device that is impossible to lose”, — he said.

Business Sjoblad, Dsruptive in the University in the South of Sweden, coming to the microchipping as the extension industry of wearable devices for tracking health. Sjoblad believes that placing the device under the skin, not wearing it on the hand type Fitibt, it is possible to improve the data collection process. “Swipe your iPhone over it and you will get the content of oxygen in the blood, the temperature profile, patterns of heart rate and respiration, he said. – For people seeking to optimize your health, this is a whole new level.”

There are other companies that extend the capabilities of microchip implants, in particular, Dangerous Things from Seattle that sells various biostructure, including multi-colored LEDs lighting up under the skin. But Osterlund believes that Sweden will become the centre of innovations among cyborgs. “Government railway already supports these chips, and our country by 2023, plans to refuse from cash, ‘he said to me. – I think here you can see an example of how this can be done”.

But URS Gasser, Executive Director of Harvard’s center for Internet and community they. Berkman Klein, believes that within the Swedish technotainment on larger markets, will be a more complex process than believes Osterlund as with legal and ethical point of view.

“While this experiment was conducted in a rich country among the technically savvy people, he said. And if you go with a chip, it will be convenient for educated people in Sweden, belonging to the technical community, the question arises how it will change the situation, for example, for workers at the warehouse.”

Gasser believes that many people reacted negatively to the advertised event at Three Square Market because it symbolizes the imbalance of power in the workplace, and calls the dystopian images of an authoritarian employer, rachellovesmoosic and tightly controlling workers. “Looking at how employees chipped at work, people have wondered about what it means to be an employee, he said. Is the person who paid for the work or is the property of the company for which he works?”

Ifeoma Ajunwa, Professor of labour and employment of Cornell University, adds that it is important to evaluate all the consequences of microchipping in a context of increased surveillance of workers. In operation 2016, “Limitless surveillance of employees“, Ajunwa with her co-authors, Kate Crawford and Jason Schultz, suggests that new methods of data collection – tracing the history of the Internet, DNA testing, collection of data on health as part of health programs in the workplace not only for employers create a more personal profile data on each employee, but also seep into their personal and domestic life.

Ajunwa says microchips will deepen and broaden this dynamic. They have “the potential for a permanent and very personal track – they literally follow the worker everywhere. It blurs the line between work and family life.”

* * *

Concern about the possible implementation of microchipping in the coming years show a few U.S. lawmakers, including Skip Daley, a Democrat from the legislature of the state of Nevada, which in March proposed a bill prohibiting forced chipping. Arkansas, new Jersey and Tennessee are also developing laws related to implants.

In a press release Three Square Market stressed that “the party chipping” was completely voluntary. But, according to Ajunwa because labor laws in the United States often play into the hands of the employers, workers can be subjected to coercion in cases of surveillance.

For example, in 2015 a woman was fired from work after she has uninstalled the app to track its movements, although at this time she was not at work. In another recent case was made public employer’s requirements for employees to donate their DNA once in the workplace was discovered human selection. Ajunwa said that, in the absence of clear labour regulation prohibiting inducement of employees to surveillance, “employees may feel the need to agree on chipping even in case of doubt”.


Tony Dunn, Vice-President of Three Square Market is in the process of implantation of the microchip

When I raised these questions in conversation with Ostersundom, he said that for a successful scaling procedure of microchipping you will need to create a new legal platform, in particular concerning the voluntary agreement. He believes that part of its success microchipping in Sweden is obliged to the strict laws governing labour and data protection – such, for example, as “General rules on data protection” (GDPR), creating an atmosphere of trust between the government and the society, the employer and the employee.

However, both he and Sjoblad suggest that most of the fear caused by the microchipping, is based not so much on concern about privacy, how many on an irrational prejudice against implants. “Microchips interten and passive, in fact, it’s a magnetic card that you can’t lose,’ said Osterlund. That’s why I find it ironic when people that have iPhone account Gmail, share on Facebook concerns about privacy just because you are afraid of injections”.

It is impossible to exclude emotional or psychological response to new technologies, especially those related to body modification. Gasser believes that this emotional response need not immediately reject, calling superstitious or illogical. “Fear tangible in relation to microchips, connected not so much with the specific technology, how much technology in the context of power and unequal power structures, such as the relationship of employer and employee, he said. And when this dynamic is embedded in our bodies, we move some kind of tangible line”.

How to make Apple: the 5 most profitable areas of the company, and how much they bring

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Image: Pexels

Apple was founded in 1976. She later became the first American company whose market capitalization exceeded $1 trillion. Since then, the company was a little cheaper, and again more expensive, but always remained one of the most successful public companies in the world.

The portal Investopedia analyzed the Apple business and has identified five of the most directions for the company from Cupertino. That’s what brings her the greatest profit.

How is Apple going now

The company is actively developing and today it is not only a manufacturer of gadgets. According to analysts ‘ estimates, the cost of the “service” part of the business Apple is about $500 billion, while hardware-the direction is estimated “only” $400 billion In fiscal 2018, Apple’s sales totaled $265,6 billion, and net income of $59.5 billion.

In the first quarter of 2019, the share of the iPhone fell 61,7% of all sales. The growing segment of services accounted for 12.9% of sales. The segment of wearable gadgets, products for home and accessories brought to 8.7% of revenue, 8% were on the iPad.

Consider the most profitable segments of the business Apple read more.

iPhone

A key product of the company, which is in the top 5 smartphones in the world continuously since 2009. While smartphone sales are falling. According to data from Gartner, the fall in the format of “year to year” in the third quarter of 2019 by up to 10%. Among the reasons for the decline is the increasing competition on the world market, the lengthening of the life cycle of the devices, slowing demand in China.

However, until now, the iPhone brings Apple more than 50% of the profits.

Services

Revenue services in the second quarter of 2019 brought Apple $11,45 billion In fiscal 2018, this figure amounted to us $37.2 billion Among the remarkable facts – almost twice as much gross margin in this direction: it leaves at 62.8%, whereas in the case of the iPhone this setting is at the level of 34.3%.

This unit includes everything from iCloud to Apple Music, and even warranties AppleCare. In 2010, revenues of referral services has increased five times, and CEO Tim cook has repeatedly stated its intention to develop this business segment. Only recently the range of services Apple has added its own streaming Apple TV, Apple financial Card product, a subscription service for video games etc.

Mac

Built around the Mac segment of personal computers brought to 2018, $25.5 billion revenue this direction is reduced along with the overall slowdown of the PC market worldwide. In the fourth quarter of 2019 Mac sales amounted to a $6.99 billion.

iPad

When Apple released the iPad in 2010, the unit quickly became the first commercially successful tablet computer. In the first three months after launch it has sold 3 million iPads. By 2015, the share of iPad accounted for 25% of global revenue to Apple. In fiscal 2018, the company selling the tablet at $18.8 billion In the fourth quarter of 2019 sales of the iPad amounted to $4,66 billion

Wearable devices, products for the home and accessories

In a segment called Apple’s Wearables, and Home Accessories, which the company had previously called proto Other Products include AirPods, AppleWatch and HomePods. In fiscal 2018, this trend has brought Apple $17.4 billion In the fourth quarter of 2019 figure was at the level of $6.52 billion – such a good result was due in large part by the launch of a new version of the wireless headphone 2 AirPods

To buy shares of Apple from Russia without the necessity to open a separate brokerage account at foreign brokers. Shares of the company from Cupertino as tennyo securities of other U.S. corporations, are traded on the market of foreign securities of the St. Petersburg exchange. Today admitted to trading more liquid stocks of 500 leading companies of all sectors of the global economy, including all of the shares of the S&P 500 index.

To make transactions with the shares of Apple, you will need a brokerage account – open it online.

Useful links on the topic of investment and stock trading:

Read reviews, Analytics, markets and investitii in Telegram-channel ITI Capital

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What happens when the connections inside and outside VPN tunnel

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From emails to tech support Tucha born real article. Recently, we were approached by a client with a request to explain what happens when the connections inside a VPN tunnel between the office user and the environment in the cloud, as well as for connections outside the VPN tunnel. Therefore, all of the text below is the actual letter we sent to the one customer in response to his question. Of course, change the IP address, not to de-anonymize the client. But Yes, technical support Tucha really is famous for its detailed answers and meaningful messages. 🙂

Of course, we understand that for many this article will not be opening. But, as on Habr, from time to time publish articles for novice administrators, as well as due to the fact that this article came from a real letter to a real client, we will share that information here. There is a high probability that someone will find it useful.
So explain in detail what is happening between the server in the cloud and office, if they are combined site-to-site network. Note that in this part of the services are available only from the office and part from anywhere from the Internet.

Just to explain that our client wished to server 192.168.A.1 can be had from anywhere to come in via RDP, connecting to A. A. A. 2:13389, and to the rest of the services — only from my office (192.168.B.0/24)connected via VPN. Also the client was configured initially that the machine 192.168.B.2 in the office, too, could walk on RDP from anywhere by connecting to B. B. B. 1:11111. We helped organize the IPSec connection between the cloud and office, and it professional customer started asking questions about what will happen in a particular case. To answer these questions, we, in fact, wrote to him all that you can read below.

Now consider these processes in more detail.

The position of the first

When something is sent from 192.168.B.0/24 to 192.168.A.0/24 or 192.168.A.0/24 to 192.168.B.0/24is VPN. That is, the package is additionally encrypted and transmitted between the B. B. B. 1 and A. A. A. 1, but 192.168.A.1 sees a packet from 192.168.B.1. They can communicate with each other across all protocols. The opposite answers are similarly transmitted via the VPN, then the packet from 192.168.A.1 to 192.168.B.1 will be sent as ESP datagram from A. A. A. 1 on B. B. B. 1, which is on the side of the router will deploy, get the package and give it to 192.168.B.1 as the packet from 192.168.A.1.

Specific example:

1) 192.168.B.1 refers to 192.168.A.1, wants to establish a TCP connection from 192.168.A.1:3389;

2) 192.168.B.1 sends a request for establishing a connection from 192.168.B.1:55555 (the port number for the feedback he chooses, here and further we use the number 55555 as an example of such a port number, which the system selects in the formation of a TCP connection) to 192.168.A.1:3389;

3) operating system which works on the PC with address 192.168.B.1, decides to transfer the packet to the gateway address of the router (192.168.B.254 in our case), because other more specific routes for 192.168.A.1, it is not, therefore, it transmits a packet over the default route (0.0.0.0/0);

4) to this end, it tries to find the MAC address for the IP address 192.168.B.254 in the cache table of the ARP Protocol. If it is not detected, it sends from the address 192.168.B.1 broadcast who-has request to the network 192.168.B.0/24. When 192.168.B.254 replies with her own MAC address, the system sends an Ethernet packet to it and stores this information in its cache table;

5) the router receives this packet and decides where to pass it: he spelled out a policy that it needs all packets between 192.168.B.0/24 and 192.168.A.0/24 to pass over a VPN connection between B. B. B. 1 and A. A. A. 1;

6) the router generates an ESP datagram from B. B. B. 1 on A. A. A. 1;

7) the router decides who to pass the packet, it sends it to, say, B. B. B. 254 (gateway ISP), because more specific routes to A. A. A. 1than 0.0.0.0/0, it does not have;

8) similarly, as has been said, he finds the MAC address to B. B. B. 254 and transmits the packet to the gateway of the Internet service provider;

9) Internet service providers pass on its networks ESP datagram from B. B. B. 1 on A. A. A. 1;

10) virtual-router A. A. A. 1 receives the datagram, decodes it and receives the packet from 192.168.B.1:55555 for 192.168.A.1:3389;

11) virtual router checks to see who it pass, finds the routing table in the network 192.168.A.0/24 and sends it directly to 192.168.A.1, since the interface is 192.168.A.254/24;

12) for this virtual router finds the MAC address for 192.168.A.1 and passes this packet through the virtual Ethernet network;

13) 192.168.A.1 receives this packet on port 3389, agrees to establish a connection and generates a packet in response from 192.168.A.1:3389 to 192.168.B.1:55555;

14) the system sends this packet to the gateway address of the virtual router (192.168.A.254 in our case), because other more specific routes for 192.168.B.1, it is not, therefore, it must pass the packet to the default route (0.0.0.0/0);

15) the same as in the previous cases, a system that is running on the server with address 192.168.A.1, finds the MAC address of 192.168.A.254because he is in the same network with its interface 192.168.A.1/24;

16) virtual router receives this packet and decides where to pass it: he spelled out a policy that it needs all packets between 192.168.A.0/24 and 192.168.B.0/24 to pass over a VPN connection between A. A. A. 1 and B. B. B. 1;

17) virtual router forms the ESP datagram from A. A. A. 1 to B. B. B. 1;

18) virtual router decides who to pass this package, sends it to A. A. A. 254 (the gateway of the Internet service provider, in this case, we have it too), because more specific routes to the B. B. B. 1than 0.0.0.0/0, it does not have;

19) the Internet providers transmit their networks ESP datagram with A. A. A. 1 on B. B. B. 1;

20) the router at B. B. B. 1 receives the datagram, decodes it and receives the packet from 192.168.A.1:3389 to 192.168.B.1:55555;

21) he understands that he should pass it on 192.168.B.1because he is in the same network therefore, you have in the routing table corresponding entry, which is forcing it to send packets for the entire 192.168.B.0/24 is directly;

22) the router finds the MAC address for 192.168.B.1 and give him this packet.

23) the operating system on the computer with the address 192.168.B.1 receives a packet from 192.168.A.1:3389 to 192.168.B.1:55555 and initiates steps to establish a TCP connection.

This example is fairly short and simplistic (and here you can still remember a lot of details) describes what occurs at levels 2-4. Level 1, 5-7 are not considered.

The position of the second

If 192.168.B.0/24 something goes to A. A. A. 2, it is not in the VPN, and directly. That is, if the user with the address 192.168.B.1 refers to A. A. A. 2:13389, this package Natasa with the address B. B. B. 1, is in A. A. A. 2, and then the router receives it and transmits it to 192.168.A.1. 192.168.A.1 don’t know anything about 192.168.B.1, he sees a package from B. B. B. 1, because he was pontil. So the answer to this inquiry is on the common route, he’s just as Natasa address A. A. A. 2 and goes to B. B. B. 1, and the router gives the answer on 192.168.B.1, one sees the response from A. A. A. 2, to which it is addressed.

Specific example:

1) 192.168.B.1 refers to A. A. A. 2, wants to establish a TCP connection to A. A. A. 2:13389;

2) 192.168.B.1 sends a request for establishing a connection from 192.168.B.1:55555 (this room, as in the previous example, may be different) to A. A. A. 2:13389;

3) operating system which works on the PC with address 192.168.B.1, decides to transfer the packet to the gateway address of the router (192.168.B.254 in our case), because other more specific routes for A. A. A. 2, it is not, and therefore, it transmits a packet over the default route (0.0.0.0/0);

4) for this, as we mentioned in the previous example, trying to find the MAC address for the IP address 192.168.B.254 in the cache table of the ARP Protocol. If it is not detected, it sends from the address 192.168.B.1 broadcast who-has request to the network 192.168.B.0/24. When 192.168.B.254 replies with her own MAC address, the system sends an Ethernet packet to it and stores this information in its cache table;

5) the router receives this packet and decides where to pass it: he spelled out a policy that it needs to natit (replacing the return address) all packets from 192.168.B.0/24 to the other sites in the Internet;

6) because this policy implies that the return address must match the lowest address on the interface that will be passed to this package, the router first decides to whom to pass this package, which, as in the previous example, needs to send it to B. B. B. 254 (gateway ISP), because more specific routes to A. A. A. 2, than 0.0.0.0/0, it does not have;

7) therefore, the router replaces the return address of the package, now the package from B. B. B. 1:44444 (the port number may of course be different) to A. A. A. 2:13389;

8) the router remembers what he did, so when from A. A. A. 2:13389 to B. B. B. 1:44444 a response is received, he will know that he should change the address and port of the recipient on 192.168.B.1:55555.

9) now the router should forward it to the Internet provider via B. B. B. 254, therefore, just as we have already mentioned, it finds the MAC address to B. B. B. 254 and transmits the packet to the gateway of the Internet service provider;

10) Internet providers transmit their networks packet from B. B. B. 1 on A. A. A. 2;

11) virtual router on A. A. A. 2 receives this packet on port 13389;

12) on the virtual router has a rule that provides that packages that are received from any sender to that port should be 192.168.A.1:3389;

13) virtual router finds the routing table in the network 192.168.A.0/24 and sends it directly 192.168.A.1, because it has interface 192.168.A.254/24;

14) for this virtual router finds the MAC address for 192.168.A.1 and passes this packet through the virtual Ethernet network;

15) 192.168.A.1 receives this packet on port 3389, agrees to establish a connection and generates a packet in response from 192.168.A.1:3389 on B. B. B. 1:44444;

16) the system sends this packet to the gateway address of the virtual router (192.168.A.254 in our case), because other, more-specific routes B. B. B. 1, it is not, therefore, it must pass the packet to the default route (0.0.0.0/0);

17) is exactly the same as in the previous cases, a system that is running on the server with address 192.168.A.1, finds the MAC address of 192.168.A.254because he is in the same network with its interface 192.168.A.1/24;

18) virtual router receives this packet. It should be noted, he remembers that he received A. A. A. 2:13389 package from B. B. B. 1:44444 and changed his address and destination port to 192.168.A.1:3389, therefore, the packet from 192.168.A.1:3389 for B. B. B. 1:44444 it changes the sender address on A. A. A. 2:13389;

19) virtual router decides who to pass the packet, it sends it to A. A. A. 254 (the gateway of the Internet service provider, in this case, we have it too), because more specific routes to the B. B. B. 1than 0.0.0.0/0, it does not have;

20) Internet service providers pass on your networks packet from A. A. A. 2 to B. B. B. 1;

21) the router at B. B. B. 1 receives this packet and remembers that when he passed the packet from 192.168.B.1:55555 for A. A. A. 2:13389, he changed the address and port of the sender on B. B. B. 1:44444, then, is the answer that you want to pass on 192.168.B.1:55555 (in fact, there exist some more tests, but we do not deepen);

22) he understands that he should pass directly to 192.168.B.1because he is in the same network therefore, you have in the routing table corresponding entry, which makes sending packets for the entire 192.168.B.0/24 is directly;

23) the router finds the MAC address for 192.168.B.1 and give him this packet.

24) the operating system on the computer with the address 192.168.B.1 receives a packet from A. A. A. 2:13389 for 192.168.B.1:55555 and initiates steps to establish a TCP connection.

It should be noted that in this case, the computer address 192.168.B.1 knows nothing about the server with address 192.168.A.1, it communicates only with the A. A. A. 2. Similarly, a server with address 192.168.A.1 knows nothing about the computer address 192.168.B.1. He believes that it is connected with the address B. B. B. 1, but he is nothing, so to speak, does not know.

It should be noted that in the case that the computer accesses A. A. A. 2:1540, connection will not be established because the forwarding connections on port 1540 is not configured on the virtual router, even if any of the servers in the virtual network 192.168.A.0/24 (for example, the server with address 192.168.A.1) and any services that are waiting for connections on this port. If the computer user with the address 192.168.B.1 it is imperative to establish a connection with the service, it needs to use the VPN, i.e. to go directly to 192.168.A.1:1540.

It should be emphasized that any attempt to establish a connection with A. A. A. 1 (except for the IPSec connection from the B. B. B. 1 will not be successful. Any attempt to connect with A. A. A. 2, except connections to port 13389, too, will be successful.
Also note that if A. A. A. 2 will ask somebody else (for example, C. C. C. C), all identified in paragraphs 10-20 will relate to him, too. What happens before and after that depends on what exactly is this C. C. C. C. We don’t have that information, so I advise to address for consultation to the administrators of the node with address C. C. C. C.

The position of the third

Conversely, if with 192.168.A.1 anything sent to a port that is configured for forwarding in on B. B. B. 1 (e.g., 11111), it also misses the VPN and just Natasja from A. A. A. 1 and goes to B. B. B. 1who passes it to somewhere in, say, 192.168.B.2:3389. He sees this package is not from 192.168.A.1, and from A. A. A. 1. And when 192.168.B.2 responds, the packet goes from B. B. B. 1 on A. A. A. 1, and later falls to the originator of the connection — 192.168.A.1.

Specific example:

1) 192.168.A.1 refers to B. B. B. 1, wants to establish a TCP connection with B. B. B. 1:11111;

2) 192.168.A.1 sends a request for establishing a connection from 192.168.A.1:55555 (this room, as in the previous example, there may be others) on B. B. B. 1:11111;

3) operating system which works on the server with address 192.168.A.1, decides to transfer the packet to the gateway address of the router (192.168.A.254 in our case), because other, more-specific routes B. B. B. 1, it is not, therefore, it transmits a packet over the default route (0.0.0.0/0);

4) for this, as we mentioned in the previous examples, trying to find the MAC address for the IP address 192.168.A.254 in the cache table of the ARP Protocol. If it is not detected, it sends from the address 192.168.A.1 broadcast who-has request to the network 192.168.A.0/24. When 192.168.A.254 replies with her own MAC address, the system sends an Ethernet packet to him and puts this information in its cache table;

5) virtual router receives this packet and decides where to pass it: he spelled out a policy that it needs to natit (replacing the return address) all packets from 192.168.A.0/24 to the other sites in the Internet;

6) because this policy assumes that the return address must match the lowest address on the interface that will be passed to this package, virtual router first decides to whom to pass this package, which, as in the previous example, needs to send it to A. A. A. 254 (the gateway of the Internet service provider, in this case, we have it too), because more specific routes to the B. B. B. 1than 0.0.0.0/0, it does not have;

7) so, the virtual router spoofs the return address of the package, now this package from A. A. A. 1:44444 (the port number may of course be others) on B. B. B. 1:11111;

8) virtual router remembers what he did, therefore, when B. B. B. 1:11111 for A. A. A. 1:44444 a response is received, he will know that he should change the address and port of the recipient on 192.168.A.1:55555.

9) now the virtual router should transmit it to the Internet provider via A. A. A. 254, then, in the same way as we have already mentioned, it finds the MAC address for A. A. A. 254 , and transmits the packet to the gateway of the Internet service provider;

10) Internet providers transmit their networks packet from A. A. A. 1 B. B. B. 1;

11) the router at B. B. B. 1 receives this packet on port 11111;

12) on the virtual router there is a rule that provides that packages that have been received from any sender to that port should be 192.168.B.2:3389;

13) the router finds the routing table in the network 192.168.B.0/24 and sends it directly to 192.168.B.2, because the interface is 192.168.B.254/24;

14) for this virtual router finds the MAC address for 192.168.B.2 and passes this packet through the virtual Ethernet network;

15) 192.168.B.2 receives this packet on port 3389, agrees to establish a connection and generates a packet in response from 192.168.B.2:3389 on A. A. A. 1:44444;

16) the system sends this packet to the gateway address of the router (192.168.B.254 in our case), because other more specific routes for A. A. A. 1, it is not, therefore, it must pass the packet to the default route (0.0.0.0/0);

17) is exactly the same as in the previous cases, the system that runs on a PC with address 192.168.B.2, finds the MAC address of 192.168.B.254because he is in the same network with its interface 192.168.B.2/24;

18) router to take the packet. It should be noted, he remembers that he received B. B. B. 1:11111 packet from A. A. A. 1 and changed his address and destination port to 192.168.B.2:3389, therefore, the packet from 192.168.B.2:3389 for A. A. A. 1:44444 it changes the sender address to B. B. B. 1:11111;

19) the router decides who to pass this package. He sends it to, say, B. B. B. 254 (the gateway of the Internet service provider, exact address, which we don’t know), because more specific routes to A. A. A. 1than 0.0.0.0/0, it does not have;

20) Internet service providers pass on their network package with B. B. B. 1 on A. A. A. 1;

21) the virtual router A. A. A. 1 receives this packet and remembers that when he passed the packet from 192.168.A.1:55555 for B. B. B. 1:11111, he changed the address and port of the sender A. A. A. 1:44444. So is the answer that must be transferred to 192.168.A.1:55555 (in fact, as we mentioned in the previous example, there are also some more tests, but this time we don’t deepen);

22) he understands that it should be transferred directly to 192.168.A.1because he is in the same network, then you have in the routing table corresponding to the entry that causes it to send packets for the entire 192.168.A.0/24 is directly;

23) the router finds the MAC address for 192.168.A.1 and give him this packet.

24) the operating system on the server with address 192.168.A.1 receives a packet from B. B. B. 1:11111 to 192.168.A.1:55555 and initiates steps to establish a TCP connection.

Exactly the same as in the previous case, in this case, the server with address 192.168.A.1 knows nothing about the computer address 192.168.B.1, it communicates only with the B. B. B. 1. Computer address 192.168.B.1 also knows nothing about the server with address 192.168.A.1. He believes that it is connected with the address A. A. A. 1, and the rest of him hidden.

Conclusion

That’s how it is for connections inside the VPN tunnel between the client and the environment in the cloud, as well as for connections outside the VPN tunnel. And if you have any questions or need our assistance in solving cloud problems, please contact 24×7.

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[Translation] Energyra working on the reopening of the factory of solar panels in the Netherlands

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The bankrupt manufacturer of solar modules is still negotiating with potential investors and tells them that they can in the shortest possible time to expand the production in a closed factory in the Netherlands Zaanstad (Zaanstad) in the shortest possible time.
Dutch manufacturer of solar (photovoltaic) modules Energyra not abandoned its plans to resume a plant in Zaanstad after filing for bankruptcy in April 2019 because of a lack of working capital and delays in the supply of equipment (these delays caused the downtime of the workers, who had to pay. Possible rent for the land Energyra does not pay, because in April 2018 was agreed with the regional government of North Holland, about which there is no data anywhere — approx.TRANS.).

Co-founder Energyra Daniel Kuik (Daniel Kuijk) told PV Magazinethat he and a small team works on the technical and on the business components of the problem in order to accomplish the restart of the plant.

“We have reliable investors who are interested in this,” said Mr Quick, noting that he was able to enlist the support of technological partners and suppliers of key equipment (namely “suppliers of key equipment” management’s summed up the plant near the monastery the last time — approx.TRANS.).

But the last piece of the puzzle needed to restore plant operation – the necessity of finding a co-investor. And Daniel would prefer a partner from the solar industry.

Даниэль Куйк слева и и финансовый директор Берт Шувс справа с продукцией завода
Daniel Quick on the left, and Finance Director Bert Shows right with factory production

It’s been almost eight months since then, as Energyra declared bankruptcy, but Quick attributes this to “seasonal factors”, arguing that it took time to increase the interest of investors. This summer started appearing parties concerned in purchase parts of the plant, especially it rocks production line with a capacity of 100 MW. But, as the main creditor, Rabo Lease (a subsidiary of Rabobank) still opposed any proposals for the sale of plant parts, while advocating a complete restart.

Factory in Zaanstad is still in good condition, said Quick, saying that he’s still “sharp”. Rabo Lease made sure to maintain the production line of the enterprise in perfect condition.

According to Kuna, a number of former (failed – approx.TRANS.) distributors also want to plant resumed production. But the next few weeks could play a crucial role in the onset of clarity regarding the desired restart of production, which will give him the opportunity to market your solar modules with through contacts (MWT) (or in other words technology transfer, the current collection contacts on the back side of Fepow with laser holes — approx.TRANS.).


From translator. The “news” section on the company website Energyra 2014 says these modules – “it is innovation, latest developments” and all that.

However, from 2015, students MEI studied to increase the efficiency of solar panels due to technology through contacts at the textbook of O. S. Popel and V. E. Fortov “Renewable energy in the modern world”. And two years earlier was already gorgeous training videos from the California team of science communicators nanolearning for differences between different types of current collection from the solar cells.

Long but informative video about the types of current collector

But what is even more interesting is the fact that the technology transfer of tyre on the rear surface of Fepow (MWT and ЕWT) was developed in the 1960s.


(screenshot from ScienceDirect article from the book Solar Cells 2013 in the right column)

For space, of course, but still in the last century. Not quite true, fellow Dutch. Ugly

In any case, I personally hope that Energyra if you still run your factory, it will not suffer the fate of other European refineries for the production of solar panels could not withstand competition with China.

Because in “solar wars”that lead with China, the US and Europe, while the first win.

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